Urban design is defined as the art of making places, where architects, planners, and engineers come together to integrate different elements together to create a bigger picture. The design of a city is very important in any place because not only does it help improve economic development and the cohesion of the community as a whole, but also reflects the cities’ culture, values, and pride. A few of the early utopiasts who created three different types of cities are Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier. Howard was the originator of the Garden City. This promoted small communities in a decentralized society just like what is seen in Radburn, New Jersey, which is the first Garden City in America. Some of the design aspects of this city included safety for children and pedestrians, a public park system, and homes located on narrow lanes along with the use of cul-de-sacs. Wright, who hated cities and industry, created what is known as the Broadacre City, which encouraged human settlement where nature and city come together as one and agrarian living.  Le Corbusier had a very different view on how a city should be. He firmly believed in large organizations, industries, and bureaucracies. Not only was Le Corbusier the founder of International Style and the Modern Architecture movement, he also believed in architectural determinism. Architectural determinism is a concept seen in sociology, urbanism, and environmental psychology, which states that the cause of social behavior in the environment is solely based on the way, it is built. With these beliefs, Le Corbusier built the Radiant City.Radiant City Picture

This consisted of high-rise residential housing in the heart of the city, internal streets connecting the buildings together, and elevated highways for traffic that is separated from subway and truck systems. I am most fascinated by his design of the Radiant City. I too like the idea of architectural determinism and believe in its factors. Although it is not really seen anymore in today’s society, the idea of living in a place such as the Radiant City is exciting because of all the modernism and the large industrial feel. Out of the three of these utopian cities, I feel that Le Corbusier designed the most original city, which introduced a new social structure in cities and a unique architectural design.