This picture was taken by an untitled photographer at East 100TH Street in New York City. This building is a typical 18th tenement block for people in working class. Following growth of citizens in big cities, blocks that contain many flats and shared public spaces were constructed. Usually, every flats had two rooms which would be shared by over three families, and only one would provide lights for householders. Tenants had to bathrooms and cooking spaces with others. Because of the lack of sanitary facilities like air circulations and large amount of people lived in one room, this kind of block had high mortality rates. This picture reflects the social background for big cities like New York which developed quickly in 19th century. At that time, overwhelming citizens came to big cities like New York City which were in need of labors forces for transportation building and manufacturing. For better working developments and education for children, people in edge cities settled down in metropolitan cities. They went here for better future, but they didn’t ware that happiness might be leaving them.


This picture was taken by Bill Owens in Dublin California. In this picture, single houses are separated by sprawls. Sprawling was used to segregate different land uses like farmlands, industrial factories and highways. Each family has own garage, and for about ten families, there was a playground for children to have fun. This is cul-de-sacs which is especially designed for children to play near home, rather than crossing dangerous public roads or highways.

Bill Owens mentioned, “We’re really happy. Our kids are healthy, we eat good food, and we have a really nice home.” Since over ten years ago, Dublin California only contained crossroads and contained population less than 1,000, most of them were cows. However, now, Dublin California builds a highway and many industrial factories. There are less fresh air and more safety issues for citizens.