As the population increases the desire to spread out increases. This is the driving factor behind urban sprawl.  Sprawl is defined as the taking of green land and converting it into single family housing on large lots with the shopping, employment, and recreational land spread out in a large area.  Sprawl is dependent on the transportation and the greatest advance in transportation was the auto mobile.  The increase in sprawl has been seen all over America but the unforeseen effects on wildlife that has not yet been fully acknowledged yet.  The harm that of tearing down a forest for a major highway or residential living can be felt by the wild life one hundred meters from the re purposing of the green land.

Taking green land tearing it down to make room for buildings and parking lots has tons of effects on  nature. By replacing grass with pavement creates a shortage of green land that absorbs rain fall. This has lead to an increase in flooding in many areas of America.  The green land absorbs the rainfall into the ground but substance like asphalt and concrete leave the water on the surface, that is storm drains are needed in cities and on roads to take the rain water away from the street and run it to somewhere that has green space.  The streets are not very clean in cities and towns around America.  The storm drains takes the water and all the filth of the streets and dumps it in creeks and wilderness. This filth gasoline, lawn chemicals, heavy metals, paints spills, motor oil, pet wastes, construction site erosion and other pollutants in runoff from lawns, driveways, roads and parking lots, which can eventually travel in large, concentrated amounts, polluting nearby water sources, such as a stream, river or lake.  These deadly pollutants come from everyday actions by residential and commercial life.

Industrial sprawl has its own set of harmful effects of pollution on the environment.  Industrial sprawl often times is on a bigger scale meaning that large plots of land have to be cleared to build a factory.  After taking down a huge part of a wildness the surrounding wildlife is harmfully effected.  Factories often pollute nearby soil and water with their harmful manufacturing waste and chemicals.  Poisonous chemicals being released into the environment through run off or air pollution can pollute water and the surrounding soil making the area unsustainable for wildlife. A story in Milford New Hampshire  shows the horrible effects of commercial and factory pollution.  Fletcher paint works and storage, From 1949 to 1991 Fletcher’s Paint Works operated a retail store and storage facility in this small New Hampshire town along the Souhegan River. In 1982 New Hampshire officials found leaking and open drums of paint chemicals in the storage area. Soil and groundwater around the site was later found contaminated with arsenic, lead, PCBs, and a slew of other nasty chemicals. The nearby Keyes Municipal Water Supply Well was shut down in the early 1980s after it was found contaminated by volatile organic compounds—gases emitted from paint and other household supplies. Cleanup began in 1988 and continues today.  The main concern now is that fish in the Souhegan contain PCBs, and that the EPA has found evidence of people fishing in the river.

Urban, commercial and industrial sprawl all have very negative effects on wildlife around the world.  In order to sprawl workers flattening green space to be re purposed for homes, offices, stores, and factories.  Ripping up trees and other plants that use to be home to thousands of animals and taking it for human use.  These animals lost their homes and wander off to the surrounding forest that has not yet been re purposed.  The surrounding wildlife land of roads, houses, factories, and commercial buildings become polluted by the everyday use of these buildings, making the new home of the animals we just kicked out unlivable.  We have to take control of the rapid sprawl of our nation and limit the amount of pollution to nearby wildlife before poison our planet.